Category Archives: Homework

The Voice Project Videos/Articles

Here are a few videos/articles you can examine to help guide your research or inspire action.

1. (Don’t let being young stop you!!) http://www.ted.com/talks/natalie_warne_being_young_and_making_an_impact.html
Natalie Warne did not let being too young stop her from running a successful campaign for the Invisible Children project In this talk, she calls on young people everywhere not to let age stop them from changing the world.

2. (Ending hunger now) to 9:20
http://www.ted.com/talks/josette_sheeran_ending_hunger_now.html
Josette Sheeran, the head of the UN’s World Food Program, talks about why, in a world with enough food for everyone, people still go hungry, still die of starvation, still use food as a weapon of war. Her vision: “Food is one issue that cannot be solved person by person. We have to stand together.” Our generation is the first in history with enough resources to eradicate hunger worldwide. Josette Sheeran, the former head of the UN World Food Programme, shares a plan.

3. (Birke Baehr: What’s wrong with our food system)
http://www.ted.com/talks/birke_baehr_what_s_wrong_with_our_food_system.html
11-year-old Birke Baehr presents his take on a major source of our food — far-away and less-than-picturesque industrial farms. Keeping farms out of sight promotes a rosy, unreal picture of big-box agriculture, he argues, as he outlines the case to green and localize food production.

4. Hyeonseo Lee: My escape from North Korea (recent topic, about international community, kindness of strangers) http://www.ted.com/talks/hyeonseo_lee_my_escape_from_north_korea.html
As a child growing up in North Korea, Hyeonseo Lee thought her country was “the best on the planet.” It wasn’t until the famine of the 90s that she began to wonder. She escaped the country at 14, to begin a life in hiding, as a refugee in China. Hers is a harrowing, personal tale of survival and hope — and a powerful reminder of those who face constant danger, even when the border is far behind. Born in North Korea, Hyeonseo Lee left for China in 1997. Now living in South Korea, she has become an activist for fellow refugees

5. Dave Meslin: The antidote to apathy http://www.ted.com/talks/dave_meslin_the_antidote_to_apathy.html
Local politics — schools, zoning, council elections — hit us where we live. So why don’t more of us actually get involved? Is it apathy? Dave Meslin says no. He identifies 7 barriers that keep us from taking part in our communities, even when we truly care.

6. Mitchell Besser – Helping mothers fight HIV – http://www.ted.com/talks/mitchell_besser_mothers_helping_mothers_fight_hiv.html
In sub-Saharan Africa, HIV infections are more prevalent and doctors scarcer than anywhere else in the world. With a lack of medical professionals, Mitchell Besser enlisted the help of his patients to create mothers2mothers — an extraordinary network of HIV-positive women whose support for each other is changing and saving lives. How can mothers with HIV avoid passing it to their kids? In South Africa, Mitchell Besser tapped a new resource for healthcare: moms themselves. The program he started, mothers2mothers, trains new mothers to educate and support other moms.

Articles:
Give freedom to people in North Korea but not its regime
http://ireport.cnn.com/docs/DOC-948965?fb_action_ids=592579957420587&fb_action_types=og.recommends&fb_source=aggregation&fb_aggregation_id=288381481237582

World and Local Issues

Here is a small list of different issues happening in the world.  There are also links to organizations (Locally and Globally) that are making an effort to help support those that are less fortunate. As your research the issues, answer the following questions:

What strikes you?

Were there any statistics that stood out to you?

What questions do you have about the issue?

How does this apply to your community?

After you read about the issues globally, go to KPBS and search about the topic locally

Find an organization in San Diego that helps with the issue that you would be interested in working with?

    What is the name of the organization?

    What issue are they helping with?

    What is their mission statement?

    How can you get involved?

Local Resources
Search KPBS for local news and issues in the San Diego community. Look under the “news” heading to find different news sections.

San Diego LGBT Community Center?
The San Diego Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Community Center, Inc., (d.b.a., The Center) is the nation’s second oldest and third largest LGBT community center. The Center provides direct program services to the many different facets of the LGBT community, including men, women, youth, seniors, families, LGBT Latino community members and their families, and those struggling with HIV. Last year The Center provided more than 50,000 direct service visits to San Diego community members, and through its events, activities and advocacy, touched the lives of thousands more

A few Global Issues:
http://www.globalissues.org/
Using the links: Please remember to be resourceful! You may come across information that you do not understand, but try your best to figure it out before you seek help.  On most of the pages, there are links to videos and supplemental information.

Poverty and Hunger
1. http://www.globalissues.org/article/588/global-health-overview
Scroll down to find “Health Poverty and Inequality”

2. http://www.globalissues.org/issue/6/world-hunger-and-poverty

Human Rights
Womens’ Rights

1. http://www.globalissues.org/article/166/womens-rights

2. Children’s Rights
A. http://www.globalissues.org/article/152/rights-of-the-child
    B. http://www.unicef.org/crc/

Links to different issues regarding Human Rights.
3. http://www.globalissues.org/issue/137/human-rights-issues

Environment:
1. http://www.globalissues.org/issue/178/climate-change-and-global-warming
2. http://www.globalissues.org/issue/168/environmental-issues
      1.  Scroll through the page to find links to different environmental issues

Food
1. http://www.globalissues.org/issue/188/genetically-engineered-food
2. http://www.globalissues.org/issue/749/food-and-agriculture-issues

Education:
Search Results for issues regarding education
http://www.google.com/cse?cx=016577431153609535798%3Augfpnts3pnu&ie=UTF-8&q=education&sa.x=0&sa.y=0#gsc.tab=0&gsc.q=education&gsc.page=1

Veterans:
Stand Downs
http://www.globalissues.org/news/2010/08/18/6651

United Nations
United Nations Humanitarian Affairs –
The Universal Declaration of Human Rights
The Universal Declaration of Human Rights, which was adopted by the UN General Assembly on 10 December 1948, was the result of the experience of the Second World War. With the end of that war, and the creation of the United Nations, the international community vowed never again to allow atrocities like those of that conflict happen again.

UNICEF
The United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) – works in 190 countries and territories to save and improve children’s lives by providing health care and immunizations, clean water and sanitation, nutrition, education, emergency relief and more.

Environmental Protection Agency
The EPA mission is to protect human health and the environment.

Voice Project Resources

Click here to get a list of different world issues.

The Voice Project! 2013

TheVoice

How hard is it to change the world?

A Baughman/ Anthony/ Zoe Collaboration

After students are exposed to the myriad of issues facing our community, nation, and world, they will select an issue for which they have great passion. Through research and discovery, students will understand their issue and connect with an organization trying to do something about it. Through that community partnership, students will take action through fundraising, awareness campaigns, volunteering, and/ or changing public policy. We will change the world, one voice at a time.

Part 1 – What do you care about?
Please click on the following links to complete the webquest. All of the organizations you will learn about are in San Diego and exist to help with issues that are happening in our community!

In order to move to the next part of the project, you must complete 8 of the following 12 web quests. As we have discussed, this is your opportunity to understand the issues facing our community, our country, and our world. Go forth young activist…learn, discover, and think about how you can make a difference.

1.San Diego Coastkeepers: San Diego Coastkeeper protects and restores swimmable, fishable and drinkable waters in San Diego County.
Roll over “Learn” and click on “Data From San Diego Beach Cleanups”
1. How did Coastkeepers start getting this information?
2. Which beach had the most debris collected? About how much?
3. Look at the “Types of Debris” chart. What percent of the trash collected was cigarettes/ cigarette butts? Combine all of the slices with “plastic,” what percent is that?
4. Click here to look at a map of polluted beaches in San Diego County. List the beaches or areas that you have visited or know about.
5. From the same page, what is the “303(d) list and who creates it?
6. Go back to the San Diego Coastkeepers page here. Roll over “ACT” and click on “Advocate for your community” and “Volunteer in San Diego.” What are two actions from those lists that might interest you?

2. Susan G. Komen San Diego: Komen’s promise is to save lives and end breast cancer forever by empowering people, ensuring quality care for all and energizing science to find the cures.
1. Start by clicking here to learn about breast cancer. Read just the first page; what is breast cancer?
2. Now go to the Susan G. Komen San Diego web site here and pick a story to read. Summarize their story. What strikes you about/ what is your reaction to this story?
3. Watch this video/ PSA. Why do you think they had so many different types of people? Why did they choose the final “boxer?”
4.Now, back to the Susan G. Komen San Diego page. Click into “Donate” OR “Race for the Cure” OR “Volunteer.” What is one specific way someone can help people with breast cancer?

3. YWCA San Diego: The YWCA of San Diego County helps women, children, and families escaping domestic violence and homelessness overcome trauma, rebuild their lives, and achieve self-sufficiency.
1. Click here to learn about the YWCA. How long have they been around and what do they do?
2. What is Becky’s House and how many people does it serve? Why do you think they do not list the address of Becky’s House?
3. Click here for the San Diego Domestic Violence Council. How many cases of Domestic Violence were reported in San Diego in 2011? How many murders were considered domestic violence in 2011?
4. From the main page of the YWCA San Diego, what are two donation opportunities for Becky’s House?

4.Red Cross San Diego/ Imperial County:
1. How many people does our local Red Cross serve?
2. What does the Red Cross do?
3. Watch this video. What did the Red Cross do during the wild fires? How have they improved their technology for future disasters?
4. Watch this video. What are four ways the Red Cross helped in 2012?
5. Of course you can give money, click here and describe two ways one can volunteer.

5.Give Clean Water: The Mission of Give Clean Water, Inc. is to change the world by providing clean water to every person on earth who needs it.
1. Watch the video on the main page. What does this organization do and what area of the world is it currently focused on?
2. Click on “About GCW” and list the steps they show under “How We Do It.”
3. Check out some water related facts on this page from Water.org. How many people are without clean water in Africa? How about South, West, and Central Asia? How about Southeast, East Asia? (You need to unclick areas so the amunt is not combined.)
4. On the same page, how many million people die each year from water related illnesses? How many are without access to clean water?
5. How can someone “Get Involved” in Give Clean Water?

6.The International Rescue Committee: The IRC offers lifesaving care and life-changing assistance to refugees forced to flee from war or disaster.
1. Watch this video on the main page of the IRC web site.
2. Keep reading; how many countries and U.S. cities does IRC operate in?
3. Look at the IRC Fast Facts page and write down two statistics that amaze you.
4. Watch this video on IRC San Diego’s work. What interests you about this work?
5. From the list on the left, what does the IRC San Diego make sure refugees get when they arrive here?
6. What is one current advocacy alert and what do they want you to do if you click on “Take Action Now?”

7. A Reason to Survive: A Reason To Survive is dedicated to providing, supporting, and advocating for arts programs that heal, inspire, and empower youth facing adversity.
Click here: http://www.areasontosurvive.org/arts/?page_id=2
1. Who is A.R.T.S
2. What do they believe in?
3. How do they use art?
Click here: http://www.areasontosurvive.org/arts/?page_id=17
4. What does it mean to be an “at risk” youth?
5. What is art’s solution to supporting “at risk” youth?
Click here: http://www.areasontosurvive.org/arts/?page_id=289, scroll down to Azia
6. How does art help Azia?
Click here: http://www.areasontosurvive.org/arts/?page_id=25
7. How can you (personally) support A.R.T.S?

8. Feeding America: Feeding America is the nation’s leading domestic hunger-relief charity. Our mission is to feed America’s hungry through a nationwide network of member food banks and engage our country in the fight to end hunger.
Click here: http://feedingamerica.org/how-we-fight-hunger/about-us.aspx
1. What is Feeding America’s mission?
Click here:http://feedingamerica.org/hunger-in-america/hunger-facts/hunger-and-poverty-statistics.aspx
2. Read the statistics and write down at least 3 that stand out to you.
3. Why do they stand out?
Click here:http://feedingamerica.org/how-we-fight-hunger/advocacy-public-policy/children-facing-hunger.aspx
4. How many children in America are living in families struggling with hunger?
5. How does hunger impact kids?

9. Monarch School:The mission of the Monarch School is to educate students impacted by homelessness and to help them develop hope for a future with the necessary skills and experiences for personal success.
Click here: http://www.monarchschools.org/about-us/need/
1. How many homeless students are in San Diego County?
2. Where do the students of Monarch school live? and how?
3. What is the Monarch School program designed to do?
4. What is the MAJOR way kids can break the cycle of poverty?
Click here: http://www.monarchschools.org/about-us/meet-our-students/
5. Read the stories of Greg and Jason, what strikes you? If you could ask Greg and Jason a question what would it be?
Click here: http://www.monarchschools.org/get-involved/ways-give/
6. What are ways you (personally) can give to the Monarch School?

10. St. Madeline’s Sophie’s Center: To empower adults with developmental disabilities to discover, experience and realize their full potential as members of the greater community.
Go to this website: http://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/developmentaldisabilities/index.html
1. In your own words, write the definition of Developmental Disabilities?
Click here: http://www.stmsc.org/about-smsc
1. What is the mission of St. Madeline’s Sophie’s Center?
2. Read “For more than 45 years . . .” What does Sophie’s Center Help with?
Click here: http://www.stmsc.org/programs
3. Pick 3 programs and answer the following question, hHow does this program help adults with developmental disabilities?
Click here http://www.stmsc.org/donate/ways-to-give
4. What are ways you (Personally) can support St. Madeline’s Sophie’s Center?

11. St. Vincent de Paul: Our mission is to help our neighbors in need break the cycle of homelessness and poverty by promoting self-sufficiency through an innovative continuum of services, multi-disciplinary programs and partnerships that come together in the spirit of our CREED to teach, learn from and challenge our neighbors and one another.
Click Here: http://www.svdpv.org/about.html
1. What are services that St. Vincent DePaul provides and how do they provide them?
Click here http://www.svdpv.org/about.html?tabinterfaceid=7#tab4
2. What is the typical resident of the Village like?
3. How many people are homeless in San Diego?
4. can homeless people really change their lives and regain productive roles in society?
Click Here http://www.svdpv.org/help.html
6. How can you personally support St. Vincent de Paul?

12. Veterans Village: We believe intensive treatment leads to self-sustaining independence, the maximizing of human potential and a meaningful, fulfilling life.
Our veterans are worthy of nothing less.
Important Vocab:What is VA? What is a veteran?
Click here and watch the first video.
1. What surprised you about Eddie?
Click on this link http://www.vvsd.net/standdown.htm
2. What is Stand Down and What is it’s philosophy?
3. List two ways the physical needs of Veterans are met during Stand Down?
Click here http://www.vvsd.net/support.htm
4. What are the ways you (personally) can support Veterans Village?
5. Are there any questions you have regarding veterans or Veterans Village of San
Diego?

13. The San Diego Humane Society  – The San Diego Humane Society and SPCA provides vital services to animals and people alike.
1. Click here – http://www.sdhumane.org/site/PageServer?pagename=abt_WhoWeAre
a. What is the vision and mission statement of the San Diego Humane Society?
b. Read the programs that the San Diego Humane Society offers. Out of the programs listed, Write down 4 that you are passionate about.
c. Click here – http://www.sdhumane.org/site/PageServer?pagename=adp_SuccessStories

2. Read two of the stories available
a.Pick one story and write down how adopting affected the life of the owner or pet.

3. Click here – http://www.sdhumane.org/site/PageServer?pagename=don_WayToDonate
a. Which way could you (personally) support the San Diego Humane Society.

4. Have any questions? Click the link below and you may find an answer to one of your questions!
http://www.sdhumane.org/site/PageServer?pagename=abt_FAQs

Week 5

Monday: We are going to investigate VOICE.
Homework:
1. Complete your goals for draft 3 of your “This I Believe” essay.  If you are having trouble with the creating goals, use “The Voice Rubric” rubric as a guide.
2. Complete a questionnaire. You need to have completed 3 by Friday!

Tuesday: Word Choice / Showing and Not Telling
Homework: Complete a questionnaire. Make sure you complete 3 by Friday!

Wednesday: Sentence Fluency
Homework:
1. Goal Sheet for Sentence Fluency
2. Complete a questionnaire. Make sure you complete 3 by Friday

Thursday: Conventions
Homework:
1. Conventions Goal Sheet
2. Complete a questionnaire. Make sure you complete 3 by Friday

Friday: Final Paper critique.

This I Believe

This I Believe, Inc., was founded in 2004 as an independent, not-for-profit organization that engages youth and adults from all walks of life in writing, sharing, and discussing brief essays about the core values that guide their daily lives.

This I Believe is based on a 1950s radio program of the same name, hosted by acclaimed journalist Edward R. Murrow. Each day, Americans gathered by their radios to hear compelling essays from the likes of Eleanor Roosevelt, Jackie Robinson, Helen Keller, and Harry Truman as well as corporate leaders, cab drivers, scientists, and secretaries—anyone able to distill into a few minutes the guiding principles by which they lived. These essayists’ words brought comfort and inspiration to a country worried about the Cold War, McCarthyism, and racial division.

In reviving This I Believe, executive producer Dan Gediman said, “The goal is not to persuade Americans to agree on the same beliefs. Rather, the hope is to encourage people to begin the much more difficult task of developing respect for beliefs different from their own.”

This I believe in Humanities
Your essay will be around 350-500 words.

Interesting Links and Documents

This I Believe website (Put your mouse on explore to read featured essays or search for essays by theme.  Put your mouse on “Listen to hear classic essays or featured essays)

Mr. Anthony’s This I believe audio file (You have to download the audio file in order to listen)
Mr. Anthony’s This I Believe essay
Click here to find quotes and sayings you can put into your essay.

Hades

This information comes from http://www.historyforkids.org/learn/greeks/religion/hades.htm

Hades was the god of the dead, who ruled the place where dead people went after they died. He is a rather shadowy figure in more ways than one, spooky, and the Greeks preferred not to talk about him too much. Generally people who had good intentions did notsacrifice to Hades either. When they did, instead of burning the fat and thebones so the smoke would go up to the sky, instead they poured blood into pits or ditches dug into the ground (as in the part of Homer‘s Odyssey where Odysseus visits the Underworld).
Hades was thought of as the brother of Zeus and Poseidon, and therefore also the brother of Demeter and Hera.

Like Poseidon, Hades does not appear in very many Greek myths. The best-known of the myths he is in are those of Persephone andOrpheus.
People sacrificed to Hades when they wanted something bad to happen, like if they were trying to get revenge on an enemy.

The Greeks did not like to talk about what happened to you after you died, and so we don’t know as much about what they thought as we might like. Probably they did not think about it as much as later people like the Christians and theBuddhists did, or at least not in the same ways.

Most Greeks believed that everybody had a spirit, which lived on after your body died, and they thought of this spirit as being rather like our ghosts, sort of transparent and floaty, but looking like the living person otherwise.

They thought that you had to do certain ceremonies when somebody died, in order to let their spirit go to the land of the dead. If you did not do these ceremonies, their spirit would continue to hang around the land of the living, haunting you and making a nuisance of itself. The most important thing was that dead people had to be buried. (see the story of Antigone, for instance).

After your body had been buried, so you were under the ground, you could cross an underground river, the river Styx (pronounced STICKS), to get to the land of the dead. Often dead people were buried with a small coin or two to pay the ferryman, Charon (KA-ron) who took you across the river Styx.

Then when you got to the land of the dead, it was basically like any place underground: dark, damp, and chilly, with nothing much to do, and lots of ghost-spirits floating around, bored and depressed, sounding like thousands of bats. You just stayed there forever. There was no promise of a better place for good people, or a worse place for bad people. Hades was king there, and sometimes Persephone was the queen.

When Odysseus visited the land of the dead and saw the spirit of Achillesthere, he asked him what it was like, being dead, and Achilles said that he would rather be a landless field hand, and alive, than be the king of the dead.

This description is about the same as what other ancient people thought around the same time. The Zoroastrians and the Jews had similar ideas. Gradually people got more interested in the afterlife, and by the time of Jesus everyone – not just Christians – was beginning to think about a different afterlife for good and bad people.

 

To find out more about Hades and the underworld, check out these books from Amazon.com or from your local library:

Prometheus

Read the story of Prometheus and write how the following characteristics can be found in Prometheus’ story Answer at least 10:

Some characteristics of Greek Myth (Prometheus)

1.  Explains a natural phenomenon or creation of something

2.  Depicts a struggle between good and evil characters

3.  Show a relationship between mortals and the supernatural

4.  Hero with a fatal flaw

5.  Adventures of a hero

6.   Intervention of gods and goddesses 

7.   Supernatural Activity (underworld, superhuman tasks)

8.   Problem caused by greed and jealousy 

9.   A woman is responsible for causing problems

10.   Explanation of how things are now
11.  References to the natural world

12.   Not always a happy ending

                                                                                        The Story of Prometheus

Prometheus was a Titan, one of the children of Ocean. He and his brother Epimetheus were Zeus‘ and Hera‘s cousins. They were not as powerful as Zeus and Hera and their brothers and sisters, but still had some god-like powers. They were very big, giants (that is why the famous ship was called the Titanic, because it was very big). 
In the beginning of the world, the Titans lived on the earth. There were no people yet, just the Titans and the animals. Prometheus used to play with clay, sometimes, and one day he made a lot of little people out of clay. He showed them to his cousins, and Zeus liked the little people so much he breathed life into them.

At first the people were very grateful to Zeus and they often gave him sacrifices. But then Prometheus, who loved jokes, told them how they could play a trick on Zeus. Prometheus said, “When you do a sacrifice, take the bones and guts, the parts you can’t eat, and put them in a bag with a nice steak on the top. And in another bag, put all the rest of the steaks, with some bones and guts on top. And ask Zeus to choose which one he wants.”

So the people did this, and Zeus chose the bag with the steak on top (The Greeks used this to explain why they ate the meat from animals they sacrificed to the gods). But when he found he had been tricked, he was very angry. To punish people, he took all the fire away from the earth. The people were very cold, and they could not cook their food. They complained to Prometheus that this was his entire fault.

Prometheus felt sorry for the cold people. And he felt it was pretty much his fault for suggesting this trick. So he snuck up to the sky and he broke off a piece of the sun and he brought it back to earth for people, and that is how people got fire. 
When Zeus found out what Prometheus had done, he got mad all over again and chained Prometheus to a big rock. (He also punished the people by sending them Pandora).

When Zeus was so angry with Prometheus for giving people fire, he was also mad at the people who had tricked him into taking the wrong bag of meat. Zeus got back at the people by getting Hephaistos to make a beautiful woman, whom he named Pandora (which means all-gifts).

Zeus sent Pandora down to earth and gave her as a present to Prometheus‘ brother, Epimetheus. Zeus told Epimetheus that he should marry Pandora. Also, Zeus sent Pandora with a little box, with a big lock on it (Actually in ancient Greek versions of this story it is a sealed pottery vase). He said not to ever open the box, and he gave the key to Epimetheus.

But Pandora was very curious about what was in the box. She begged Epimetheus to let her open it, but he always said no. Finally one day he fell asleep, and she stole the key (or broke the seal) and opened the box (or vase).Oh! Out of the box flew every kind of trouble that people had never known about before: sicknesses, and worries, and crimes, and hate and envy and all sorts of bad things. The bad things all began to fly away like little bugs, all over the place. Pandora was very sorry now that she had opened the box! She tried to catch the bad things and put them back in the box but it was too late. They all flew away. 
But the very last thing to fly out of the box, as Pandora sat there crying, was not as ugly as the others. In fact it was beautiful. It was Hope, which Zeus sent to keep people going when all the nasty things got them down

Every day a big eagle would come and eat Prometheus’ liver. But because he was immortal and could not die, every night his liver grew back again, and then the next day the bird ate it again. 
Prometheus suffered this torture every day for years and years, until finally Herakles released him.

Greek Mythology and Religion

Essential Question – What meanings did myths about gods, goddesses, and heroes have for the ancient Greeks? What meanings do the Greek myths have for us today?

After this unit, you will be able to:

  • Describe the basic plots of several Greek myths.
  • Discuss three types of themes in Greek myths: stories about heroes, stories about “how it came to be,” and stories about the consequences of unwise behavior.
  • Cite examples of contemporary use of terms from Greek mythology.

Greek Mytholoy and Religion background knowledge: The anceint Greeks never became unified into one state. They lived apart from one another in small city states and colonies. They did, however become united by their language, religion, and tradiional stories.  In this reading, you will learn about the significance of Greek REligion and stories about gods and history.

Greek Religious Beliefs: In some ways, Greek religious practices were similar to those found in other ancient culture.  The Greeks were polytheists who believed in many gods, or deities.  A deity is a being with supernatural powers. Like other agricultural people, the Greeks believed that gods and spirits were at work all around them. Unlike the gods of Egypt, however, the Greek deities looked like ordinary people.

The Gods of Mount Olympus: The Greeks believed that their major gods lived on Mount Olympus, a mountain in northern Greece. Zeus was the supreme ruler of the gods, as well as the lord of the sky and god of rain. He threw his main weapon, a thunderbolt, at those who displeased him. His wife, Hera, protected maried women and their households.
Zeus had two brothers.  The first, Poseidon, was the god of the sea.  A quarrelsome god, when he was angry, Poseidon could make the earth shake and the seas churn. Zeus’ second brother, Hades ruled the underworld.  Hades was a greedy god, always looking for more dead people to add to his domain.
Other major gods included Apollo, god of the arts, prophecy, and healing, and Ares, the god of war.  Artemis had charge of the woods and hunting.  Aphrodite was goddess of love and beauty, and Demeter oversaw farming and the harvest. Athena was a favorite deity of many Greeks.  According to one myth, she gave the Greeks a very useful gift-the olive tree.  She was the guardian of the city of Athens and a patron of crafts such as weaving and pottery.  The Greeks believed that Athena often appeared to help them in times of war.  She was fierce and brave in battle.  But she would fight only to protest the Greek city-states from outside enemies.
Minor gods were believed to live on Olympus as well.  One was Eros, god of love.  Others included Muses, a group of nine sisters.  The inspired poets, historians, scientists, and musicians.  Today, the word muse is often used to refer to the inspiration for a creative artist. The word museum originally meant “the place of the Muses.”

Greek Mythology:  The greeks created no Bible or Vedas to explain their religion.  Instead, they based most of their religious beliefs on their mythology.  Mythology is the collection of stories that people tell about their history and their gods.  The Greeks used mythology to answer questions about the world around them.  Some myths explained the changing of the seasons.  Others explained why so much trouble existed in the world.  Still others tried to explain human behavior.  Greek mythology also included stories about heroes.  One such story told of a hero named Hercules.  He was famous for his amazing strength and courage.  Like many characters in Greek myths, Hercules was only half human.  His mother was human, but his father was Zeus.  However, being Zeus’ son did not protect Hercules from suffering.  According to the myths, Zeus’ jealous wife, Hera, cast a spell on Hercules that drove him mad and made him kill his beloved wife and sons.
In Greek mythology, gods and goddesses behaved very much like ordinary people.  They fell in love, got married, and had children.  They liked to celebrate and play tricks.  They also grew jealous and became angry.  As a result, these deities seemed very real to the Greeks.

Homer’s Epics:  Two great epic poems provided another source of Greek religious beliefs.  The iliad and the Odyssey told stories of ancient times.  They were the work of the poet Homer, who lived in the eighth century B.C, although the stories themselves were much older.  Homer’s stories may have been based on real events.  Mycenaean Greeks and Trojans may have gone to war over land or trade.  To later Greeks, however, what really happened was less important than what Homer imagined might have happened.
Earlier stories had staated that the Trojan War began with a quarrel among Hera, Athena, and Aphrodite over who was the most beautiful.  In borth the Iliad and Odyssey, the gods often took part in human affairs.  During the war, some gods sided with the Greeks, others with the Trojans.  After the war, different gods often influenced the fate of Odysseus and his companions.  Homer’s epics reflected the Greeks’ belief that the gods controlled much of their lives, while also portaying human characters such as Odysseus as crafty and intelligent.  As Odysseus says in the Odyssey:
Of all creatures that breathe and walk on the earth there is nothing more helpless than a man.. For he thinks that he will never suffer misfortune in future days, while the gods grant him courage, and his knees have spring in them.  But when the blessed gods bring sad days upon him, against his will he must duffer it with enduring spirit. 

Religion in Everyday life: Greek myths and Homer’s epics shaped the Greeks’ indentity-their idea of what it meant to be Greek.  They saw little seperation between the gods’ lives and their own.  As a result, public and private religious shrines.  Public meeting began with prayers and animal sacrifices.  Although women did not participate in the government of the polis, their particicpation in its religious ceremonies was essential. Each city-state built temples to its favorite deities.  At specific times, citizens made sacrifices to those gods in front of their temples.  People offered gold, cakes and wine, or prized animals such as bulls.  They asked the gods for favors, such as good crops or good health.

Festivals and games:   Greeks also honored the gods publicly with festivals and games.  Poets and musicians competed to offer the best songs.  Later, as you will read in Section 2, writers presented their best plays.  Athletic contests were sometimes a feature or religious rituals.  Athletes dedicated their skill and strength to the gods.  They competed in boxing, wrestling, and running and in throwing the javelin and discus.  They also took part in chariot and horse races.  The leading competitions brought together athletes from many city-states.  City-States at war would stop fighting during the games.  The most famous competitions were the Olympic Games, which honored Zeus.  These games took place every four yesrs at Olympia.  A huge gold and ivory statue of Zeus stood in the temple at the Olympic site.  Archaeologists have found the ruins of the temple as well as a large stadium there.
Winners in the games were given a wreath of leaves.  Like modern athletes, winners became heroes to many ordinary citizens in Greece.  Often, wealthy aristocrats supported these athletes.  In addition, cities awarded valuable gifts to their winning athletes.  Athens and other cities even gave Olympic winners free meals for life.

Sacred Places:  Because many people believed that the gods lived in Greece, they considered many places in the landscape to be scared.  Groves of trees, springs, and other places were thought to be home to various gods and spirits.  The Muses, for example, had several favorite mountains.  A great temple to Apollo stood at Delphi, a religious center on Mount Parnassus.  The Greeks believed that a priestess known as the Delphic oracle lived there.  An oracle is a person who predicts what will happen in the future.  People traveled to Delphi from all over Greece to ask the priestess questions about the future.  The oracle was famous for answering with puzzling statements that could be interpreted in several ways.
The tourists who visit Delphi today no longer come looking for an oracle.  The Greek religion died out long ago, but the myths and epic inspired by those ancient beliefs are still read today.  Books and movies often borrow plots from Greek myths.  The reason is simple.  Religious ideas have changed since the days of ancient Greece, but good stories will always hold people’s interest.


 

 

Guns, Germs and Steel final paper

    Guns, Germs and Steel final paper
To end our study of guns, germs and steel you will combine everything we have been working on into one final paper.  Answer the questions using complete sentences and try your best to make sure there is a nice flow between sentences and paragraphs.   You may use the following websites as a guide. You can use all of the notes from the previous research you have completed (Notes from movies, previous research questions)http://www.pbs.org/gunsgermssteel/variables/index.htmlFor information on crops:
http://www.pbs.org/gunsgermssteel/variables/wheat.html(Look to the right sidebar for information on other crops)For information on Cattle:
http://www.pbs.org/gunsgermssteel/variables/cattle.html(Look to the right sidebar for information on different types of animals)For information on Germs:
http://www.pbs.org/gunsgermssteel/variables/smallpox.html
http://www.pbs.org/gunsgermssteel/variables/malaria.htmlFor information on Steel and Writing:
http://www.pbs.org/gunsgermssteel/variables/steel.html
http://www.pbs.org/gunsgermssteel/variables/writing.htmlFor information on geography:
http://www.pbs.org/gunsgermssteel/variables/latitude.html
http://www.pbs.org/gunsgermssteel/variables/continents.html
http://www.pbs.org/gunsgermssteel/variables/cities.html
  1. Paragraph 1
    1. What is Jared Diamond’s theory behind geography, guns, germs and steel? (You should be able to write 4 sentences – One sentence for each topic) Talk about what he believes about geography, guns, germs and steel and how they determine whether or not a civilization has a lot of “cargo”
  2. Paragraph 2 (Geography)
    1. Define geographic luck
    2. Compare the geography of the fertile crescent to the geography of the people of Papua New Guinea.
      1. How did the geographic luck of civilizations in the fertile crescent differ from the geographic unluck of the civilization from Papua New Guinea?
      2. How did geography influence the way the people of Papua New Guinea grew their crops?
        1. Talk about the difference in crops between the two civilizations.  It will be helpful to mention how difficult it was for the Papua New Guineans to plant their crops and compare it to planting wheat.
  3. Paragraph 3 (Steel) Conquistadors vs. Incas
    1. How did geographic luck influence the development of steel?
      1. Why were the people from Papua New Guinea slow to develop steel?
    2. What advantages did the conquistadors have over the Incas? and what lead to these advantages?
      1. Writing
        1. How did writing play a pivotal role in the conquistadors conquest of the Inca?
      2. Steel
        1. What steel weapons and technology did the conquistadors poses and how were they an advantage over the Inca?
      3. Horses
        1. How did horses give the conquistadors an advantage over the Incas in battle and in “image”
  4. Paragraph 4 (Germs) Africans vs. Europeans
    1. Why did the Europeans have a hard time colonizing Africa as they moved from southern Africa to the interior?
      1. Talk about farming and Animal life
    2. Why did the Europeans have immunity to the diseases they passed to the Africans?
      1. Talk about where the diseases came from and how geography played a role in the spread of diseases.
    3. How did germs play a role in the European colonization of Africa
      1. Describe some of the long lasting effects of germs in Africa
  5. Conclusion
    1. How has Guns, Germs and Steel changed your view on history? If it has not changed the way you think of history, please explain why.