Grammar PDF.  Please click here for a PDF that has Grammar Rules.  Please note that every other page is blank. Please note that the PDF comes from Keys For Writers.

Apostrophe rules are on page 35

There, They’re, Their

Its and It’s

1.  Sentences, Questions, Commands, and Exclamations: 

Declarative Sentences – Declarative Sentence make statements

Interrogative Sentences – Interrogative sentences Ask Questions

Imperative Sentences – Imperative Sentences give commands

Exclamatory Sentences – Exclamatory Sentences express surprise or some other strong emotion

2.  Types of Sentences:

Writers should add a variety of sentence structures to his/her writing.  A good way to do this is to mix simple, complex, compound and compound complex sentences.

A Simple Sentence contains one Independent clause (An Independent Clause = A subject, a Verb and it makes sense on it’s own)

Example: Kara raised her hand.

A Compound Sentence contains two ore more independent clauses connected with one or more Coordinating Conjunctions (Coordinating Conjunctions include: and, but, or, nor, so, for, yet), or with a semicolon alone, or with a semicolon transitional expression.

Example:  She raised her hand, and the whole class was surprised.

Example: She raised her hand, but nobody else responded.

Example:  She raised her hand; the whole class was surprised

A Complex Sentence contains an Independent Clause and one or more Dependent Clause ( A dependent Clause must always be connected to an independent clause.  If you begin a sentence with when, because, although, or some other subordinating conjunction, connect that clause to an independent clause. )

Example: (Dependent Clause) When she raised her hand, the whole class was surprised (Independent Clause)

Example: (Independent Clause) The whole class was surprised when she raised her hand (Dependent Clause)

A Compound-Complex Sentence contains at least two Independent Clauses and at least one Dependent Clause

Example:: (Dependent Clause) When she raised her hand, the whole class was surprised, and

(Independent Clause) the professor waited eagerly, as she began to speak (Dependent Clause)

3.  Sentence Beginnings:

There are plenty of ways for you to spice up the beginning of your sentences!   Here are a few variations that you can use to begin your sentences.  Try not to repeat a certain beginning to many times because it can become stylistic, which could bore readers.  Here are some examples:

Example 1 – Begin with a Dependent Clause or a Phrase

(Dependent Clause stops at comma) While my friends were waiting for the movie to begin, they ate three tubs of popcorn.

(Phrase ends at comma) While waiting for the movie to begin, my friends ate three tubs of popcorn

Example 2 – Being with an Participle or an adjective.  (A participle is simply a word that has characteristics of a Verb and Adjective) A sentence can begin with a participle or an adjective if the word is in a phrase that refers to the subject of the independent clause.

(Adjective) Aware of the problems, they nevertheless decided to continue.

(Past Participle) Forced to work late, they ordered a pepperoni pizza.

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